- Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the United States – 2012 Facts and Figures – Feb 2014 (PDF)
This fact sheet describes the national waste stream (MSW generation, recovery, and disposal) based on data collected from 1960 through 2012 and was prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).
- Impact of Plastics Packaging on Life Cycle Energy Consumption & Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States and Canada, Substitution Analysis – January, 2014 (PDF)
This Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study was conducted for the American Chemistry Council (ACC) and the Canadian Plastics Industry Association (CPIA). The analysis focused on six major packaging categories: caps and closures, beverage containers, stretch and shrink film, carrier (shopping) bags, other flexible packaging, and other rigid packaging. In each category, the life cycle impacts of the current types and quantities of plastic packaging were compared to a scenario in which plastic packaging is substituted by alternative materials (e.g., paper and paperboard, glass, steel, aluminum, textiles, rubber, and cork). Separate substitution analyses were conducted for packaging in the US and Canada. While this study examines packaging impacts using a life cycle approach, the study is limited to an assessment of energy and GHG impacts and does not include an expanded set of environmental indicators.
- Executive Summary – Greenhouse Gas and Energy Life Cycle Assessment of Pine Chemicals Derived from Crude Tall Oil and their Substitutes – August, 2013 (PDF)
Franklin Associates recently performed his peer-reviewed life cycle assessment (LCA) for the Pine Chemistry Division of ACC. This analysis investigates the U.S., European, and global industry carbon and energy footprint of pine chemicals derived from crude tall oil (CTO).
- ICCA Building Technology Roadmap – The Chemical Industry's Contributions to Energy and Greenhouse Gas Savings in Residential and Commercial Construction – November 2012 (PDF)
Franklin Associates, A Division of ERG, provided overall management of this project and led the development of the life cycle energy and GHG analysis, including guidance on methodology and 2050 scenario modeling.
- Environmental Information Document Australian Manufacture Polypropylene – January 2012 (PDF)
Franklin Associates, A Division of ERG, peer reviewed this report "Cradle-to-gate Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) and Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) for Polypropylene (PP) Manufacture in Australia" in accordance with ISO 14040/14044.
- Life Cycle Inventory of Plastic Fabrication Processes: Injection Molding and Thermo Forming - September 2011 (PDF)
This gate-to-gate LCI study of plastic fabrication methods was conducted for the Rigid Plastic Packaging Group (RPPG) of the Plastics Division of the American Chemistry Council (ACC). This project enhances the usefulness of the ACC resin LCI database by providing the data necessary to assemble cradle-to-gate LCIs of fabricated plastic products, so that the environmental profiles of plastic products can be quantified.
- Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of Nine Plastics Resins and Four Polyurethane Precursors - August 2011
This report provides an in-depth look at the environmental profiles for the production of major plastic resins and polyurethane precursors. This is the report behind the plastic resin data in the U.S. LCI database and was prepared for the Plastics Division of the American Chemistry Council.
- Life Cycle Inventory of Foam Polystyrene, Paper-Based, and PLA Foodservice Products – February, 2011
Franklin Associates, A Division of ERG, conducted this life cycle inventory (LCI) primarily to provide Plastic Foodservice Packaging Group (PFPG) with more complete information about the environmental burdens and greenhouse gas impacts from the life cycle of disposable foodservice products and to add products using PLA. This study is an extension of a peer-reviewed life cycle inventory completed in 2006 for the Polystyrene Foodservice Packaging Council (PSPC), which is now known as PFPG. The study examined several categories of foodservice products including 16-ounce hot cups, 32-ounce cold cups, 9-inch high-grade plates, and sandwich-size clamshells.
- Peer-Reviewed Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) for the Production and Use of Installed Residential Piping Systems for Three House Layouts - February 2011 (PDF)
This peer-reviewed report, completed in 2011 for the Plastic Piping Education Foundation (PPEF), examined the production and use of pipe systems installed in three residential home layouts. The appendices attached at the end of the report include a 2008 life cycle inventory report prepared for the Plastic Pipe and Fitting Association (PPFA) on production of several types of water supply pipe, hot and cold water distribution (HCWD) pipe, and drain/waste/vent (DWV) pipe.
- i. Life Cycle Inventory of 100% Post-consumer HDPE and PET Recycled Resin from Post-consumer Containers and Packaging - January, 2011 (PDF)
This collection-to-resin LCI study of PET and HDPE recycled resins was sponsored by ACC, APR, NAPCOR, and PETRA. Life cycle inventory (LCI) methodology was used to quantify the energy requirements, solid wastes, and atmospheric and waterborne emissions for the processes required to collect post-consumer PET and HDPE packaging, sort and separate the material, and reprocess it into clean recycled resin.
- Life Cycle Assessment of Drinking Water Systems: Bottled Water, Tap Water, and Home/Office Delivery Water – October 2009 (PDF)
This peer-reviewed report, completed in 2009 for the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, examined the environmental implications of several options for delivery and consumption of drinking water, including bottled water, tap water consumed from reusable containers, and home/office delivery (HOD) water consumed from reusable containers. A total of 48 drinking water system scenarios were analyzed, covering a range of single-use bottle materials, sizes, weights, and recycling rates, and a range of reuse scenarios for HOD containers and reusable containers used for tap water.
- Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of Three Single-Serving Soft Drink Containers – August 2009 (PDF)
This peer reviewed study was commissioned by PET Resin Association to evaluate the environmental footprint of the PET bottle and alternative containers used for soft drinks. Three common non-refillable single-serving soft drink containers were evaluated - aluminum can, glass bottle, and PET bottle.
- Electronics Waste Management in the United States – July 2008 (PDF)
A report on consumer electronics generation and end-of-life management prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). This report contributes to the information base on electronics generation and management in the U.S.
- Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Summary for PLA and PET 12-Ounce Water Bottles – December 2007 (PDF)
This summary report was prepared for the PET Resin Association and evaluates the life cycle inventory results for 12-ounce water bottles. The common polyethylene terephthalate (PET) 12-ounce water bottle is compared to one produced from polylactide (PLA).
- Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of Container Systems for Wine - October 2006 (PDF)
This peer reviewed study was commissioned by Tetra Pak and compared different wine packaging systems.
- Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of Polystyrene Foam, Bleached Paperboard, and Corrugated Paperboard Foodservice Products – March 2006
This peer-reviewed study provides an extensive and comparative look at the energy and environmental performance of foodservice packaging products made with polystyrene foam, bleached paperboard or corrugated paperboard. This study was prepared for the Polystyrene Packaging Council, a part of the American Chemistry Council's Non-Durables Plastics Panel.
- Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of Packaging Options for Shipment of Retail Mail-Order Soft Goods – April 2004
The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Metro, and U.S. EPA co-sponsored this peer-reviewed study in order to evaluate the solid wastes, as well as energy, materials, and atmospheric and waterborne emissions associated with the entire life cycle (production, use, and discards) of a variety of packaging materials that are currently used to ship non-breakable items (soft goods) in catalog sales or e-commerce.
- U.S. Life-Cycle Inventory (LCI) Database - 2002
This was an extensive project to develop a publicly available U.S. database of LCI information that uses a common protocol for all unit processes. The protocol document for the project was completed in January 2002, and the data collection has been ongoing. The original project was a cooperative effort with Franklin Associates, Athena Institute, and Sylvatica. Franklin Associates developed many of the key data sets, including data for production and combustion of process and transportation fuels, grid electricity, plastic resins, primary and secondary aluminum, several metal transformation processes, and several commodity chemicals. The initial data sets were developed in 2003-2006. Updates for many of the original data sets have been submitted since then, and we continue to develop and submit data sets on behalf of industry clients. The database is now maintained by NREL and can be accessed at the LCA Digital Commons website.
- Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States – June 1998 (PDF)
This report characterizes the quantity and composition of building related construction & demolition (C&D) debris generated in the U.S. and was prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).
- SimaPro LCA Software - 1998
Franklin Associates provided the Franklin Associates' 1998 U.S. LCI cradle-to-gate data sets for several materials (including various plastic resins, metals, glass, paper and paperboard), as well as fuels and electricity to SimaPro in 1998. SimaPro software, published by PRé Consultants, continues to be the main LCA software used by Franklin Associates.
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